for how long was jamaica a spanish colony

The Spaniards, led by Christopher Columbus and his crew, had set out from Spain on their second voyage to the New World, when they found the shores of this beautiful island they named Jamaica. Due to disease and abuse, more than half of the native population had disappeared by 1600. Spanish place names, and distortions of some of those Spanish place names, are the principal reminder that Jamaica was a Spanish colony for 161 years, between 1494 when Columbus claimed the island in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and 1655 At this time Britain established a system of Apprenticeship in which slaves’ children under the age of 6 years old and those born after this date were free. On Columbus' fourth voyage to the New World in 1503, he sought refuge near a Taino village called Maima in Jamaica. You are also invited to join his exclusive JAMHearts community where like-minded Jamaican enthusiasts discuss all things Jamaican. With Indeed it straddled what is sometimes called the first empire (up until the surrender of the American colonies following Yorktown) and the second empire (when the focus was mainly on India). The British had such a long colonial history in Jamaica (1655–1962) that we usually forget that the island was a Spanish colony for more than 150 years (1494-1655). Jamaica was a British colony from 1655 until 1958; it became a fully independent state in 1962. His Jamaica was no longer a Spanish or British colony; it was now guided only by the will of … It tells you each week about the new information that I have added, including new developments and great stories from lovers of Jamaica! The Arawaks/Caribs perished quickly from European diseases or were enslaved to work on Spanish plantations. Many, being foreign to these practices, died soon after while The Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a supply base for food and animal hides. Jamaica Culture | It's the single most important element that defines Jamaica as Jamaica. The island nation is now a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Kayann's authentic Jamaican rum cake is not only very simple, but 'deliciously tasty and rummy' (my phrase). To date, he serves over 9,300 unique readers / viewers per day. Eyre was removed from office and Jamaica placed under Crown colony rule (1866). was able to accomplish what the Spanish could not; they made Jamaica In the early days of the colony, piracy flourished. See also: Why is Emancipation Day Celebrated In Jamaica? In the 18th century, a number of slaves secured their freedom through a variety of means, such as being mistresses or children of plantation whites. This was indeed one of the most horrific incidents of complete genocide in world history. The Colonial History of JamaicaContributed by Tamekia Kentish. However with the abolition a new form of slavery emerged in the society in … Jamaica’s leadership. In only a few days, we'll be celebrating Christmas! The Spanish colony in Jamaica was never a very large or a very flourishing one. Jamaica Culture - Jamaican Customs, Traditions and Way of Life, The Jamaica Festival Song Competition | The 2020 Edition, Jamaican History - By The 98 Year Old Man, Homestyle Jamaican Rum Cake Recipe | In Text And Video, Jamaican Christmas Customs | 10 Helpful Resources On Christmas In Jamaica, Jamaican Christmas Traditions | 14 UNUSUAL Questions, Answered, My Jamaican Sea Moss Harvesting Adventure | How We Harvest Jamaican Irish Moss. In finally abolished in 1807 and full Emancipation of the British slaves including the Jamaica Gleaner's Hospitality Jamaica, Carlong Publishers, This Wednesday, the King and Queen of Spain came instead of sending an adventurer. Click Here to see how. was realized on August 1, 1834. After years of struggling against British (colonial) rule, Jamaica rallied to gain it's Independence on August 6, 1962. One that will go down in history as one of the most eventful, Tis' The 'Funnest' Time Of The Year! Henry Morgan, Calico Jack Rackham, and his wife Anne Bonny were a few of the names that made Port Royal into the richest city of vice in the new world. A look back at the Jamaica Festival Song Competition 2020; the selection process, the top 10 entries, and eventual winner of the competition. George Foster's A New Map of the Island of Jamaica (1740) shows it as a British possession, as indeed it had been since 1655 when Oliver Cromwell's forces had taken the colony from the Spanish. prosperous. Less than a year later, Columbus was dead, and the island of Jamaica, like the larger Hispaniola to the north, was … How effective the leadership has been since then though is probably a topic for another discussion :-). These Traditional Jamaican childhood games are some of the most creative in the world; from Chiney Skip, to Box Truck they are dynamic and all fun! It was a British colony between the periods of 1655 to 1962. In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, the town of Sevilla la Nueva (New Seville), on the north coast. It works! Between 1509 and 1655, it was a Spanish Colony, with its capital at Villa de la Vega. Some were killed. The banana industry was established in the second half of the 19th century, on big estates and smallholdings. Their economy, based on fishing and the cultivation of corn (maize) and cassava, sustained as many as 60,000 people in villages led by caciques (chieftains). Under British rule, Jamaica went from being a Spanish storehouse to one of the most prized Colonial possession of the entire British Empire. Christopher Columbus first explored Jamaica in 1494 when it was inhabited by the Arawak Indians, and named it St Iago. These factors led to the rapid decline of the indigenous population of Jamaica. , Copyright © 2007-2020 My-Island-Jamaica.com. Does Jamaica Have Christmas? Jamaica: Jamaica is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. For treatments of the island in its regional context, see West Indies and history of Latin America. as well as recognition from numerous prestigious international agencies By the early 17th century, when virtually no Taino remained in the region, the population of the island was about 3,000, including a small number of African slaves. A patriotic Jamaican who adore its culture, Wellesley has been using this medium to share what he calls ', His Also connect with My-Island-Jamaica.com on Social Media: Facebook | Twitter | Instagram | YoutubeThank You! Click Here to try our dependable and effective Site Search tool. New! to watch my latest videos on my fun YouTube channel - you'll love it! As a British colony, Jamaica flourished in agriculture. Make sure you subscribe to my free monthly e-zine My Island Jamaica Digest (MIJD) and stay with the latest from Jamaica! Please Click Here To Share It With Your Friends, Home| Partners| Why is Emancipation Day Celebrated In Jamaica? Share this awesome content with your friends now. They settled here Traditional Jamaican Childhood Games | The Games We Loved To Play! transported from Africa to Jamaica. A few years before Spanish Guinea’s independence in 1968, exports per capita were the highest in Africa. Have Your Say| By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. What are the Jamaican Christmas traditions? For Authentic Jamaican products, from my very own hands, visit my Etsy store here. Britain claimed the island as a colony formally in 1661. Read more about him here. There are mountains and plateaus to the interior and east of the island. Jamaica was inhabited by Native American people, known as Tainos, at the point when Christopher Columbus made landfall there in 1494. Our Preferred Sponsors  & Friends (below). enslaved. Their first bid at stirring interest to the island was to arrived in Jamaica at the Kingston Harbour and captured the island from The following history of Jamaica focuses on events from the time of European contact. It appears that Spain seemed to lack vision Click Here to watch my latest videos on my fun YouTube channel - you'll love it! By Wellesley Gayle, Copyright © 2007-2020 My-Island-Jamaica.com. Christopher Columbus reached the island in 1494 and spent a year shipwrecked there in 1503–04. others took their own lives; even their babies were killed. Contact| Jamaica remained a Spanish colony until 1655 when it was captured by the British, who imported slaves from Africa to work on the island’s sugar plantations, which became the basis of the island’s economy. The Spanish has left a legacy that is visibly reflected The tainos were brutally treated, by Jamaica Global January 25, 2018 0 4015 Columbus arrived at St. Anns Bay on May 5, 1494 but finding the Indians hostile, he moved on to a harbour ‘shaped like a horseshoe’ which we now know today as Discovery Bay and it was here that he made his first landing and claimed the island for the kingdom of Spain. The Constitution reflects the country’s independence as a nation state and, to this day, remains the cornerstone of the island’s legal systems and institutions. For Authentic Jamaican products, from my very own hands, visit my Etsy store here. In the early 20th century, Jamaicans worked on banana plantations in Central America and Cuba, and in the construction of the Panama Canal. It's nearly 515 years since Columbus came to Jamaica on his second voyage. As a result of this, over 1 million slaves were estimated to have been In 1655 on May 10, a body of English sailors and soldiers landed at Passage Fort, in Kingston harbour, and marched towards Spanish Town. Its close neighbours are Haiti, to the east, and Cuba, to the north. Jamaica was a spanish colony for about 100 years but the british got it because the spanish didn't really put protection during the spanish-anglo war in the 1600s. After the Spanish repelled this poorly executed attack, the English force then sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. This horrendous slave trade was Site Search| Santiago de la Vega (Spanish Town), the Spanish capital city, was established in 1538. OMG. As a result of this the slave trade was ended in 1807 followed by the abolishment of slavery in Jamaica in 1834. Later they travelled to the south and developed Jago de la Vega (St. James of the Plain), which at present is known in the island as Spanish Town. Link To Us. been the major force behind Britain’s Industrial Revolution. After years of struggling against British (colonial) rule, Jamaica rallied to gain it's Independence on August 6, 1962. We forget, until we come across places like Savanna la … A patriotic Jamaican who adore its culture, Wellesley has been using this medium to share what he calls 'the uniqueness of Jamaica with the world' since April 2007. their children than have them live as slaves. The Constitution took effect on August 6,1962 when Jamaica gained political independence from Britain, after more than 300 years of British colonial rule. Britain During the Spanish colonial period in the Americas (1492–1832), about two million Spanish settlers migrated to the newly acquired territory, and a further 3.5 million people migrated to the Americas between 1850 and 1950. In 1780, one of these free people of color, Cubah Cornwallis, became well-known when she nursed British naval hero Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, back to health in Port Royal when he took ill. Do like I did! New! Spanish settlers arrived in 1510, raising cattle and pigs, and introducing two things that would profoundly shape the island’s future: sugar and slaves. Something needs changing? considered the slaves no higher than they would their cows or goats. Read more about him. as well as recognition from numerous prestigious international agencies This year has been a tumultuous year. JOIN US| However, there were never significant Spanish communities on the island, which was why it easily occupied by the British. The slave trade provision evidently satisfied both countries, but the trade in goods did not. Jamaica. One solution he came up with was to invite anti-Spanish pirates and privateers to establish themselves in Jamaica without fear of prosecution or retribution. Thus, Spain bought Spain. The first inhabitants of Jamaica probably came from islands to the east in two waves of migration. Spanish and British History in Spanish Town Jamaica. Thus, by 1664 Sir In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega (later Santiago de la Vega), now called Spanish Town. Also connect with My-Island-Jamaica.com on Social Media: questions and answers! Despite his victories against the Spanish, governor Edward D'Oyley was concerned for the long term viability of the colony in such a hostile region. Smuggling by British ships continued, and a highly organized contraband trade based in Jamaica--with The first town was called New Seville or Sevilla la Nueva. the Spanish colonies (4,800 a year for 30 years) and also to send 1 ship a year to Portobelo. However, the last Spanish colony to claim independence from Spain in 1968 was a territory in West Africa—Equatorial Guinea—a nation-state where Spanish still serves as the official language. Please help me get the message out by sharing this article with your friends on social media (links below). Was the information helpful? The Spanish colony of Britain Further settlements such as Liguanea, Guanaboa, Esquivel (Old Harbour), Passage Shipwreck, hunger, thirst, and bloodshed. The Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a supply base for food and animal hides. It remained a Spanish colony until seized by the English in 1655. Names That's just one of 14 unusual questions we answered on Christmas in Jamaica. He invites you to subscribe to this site to stay updated on all the latest and check out his unique Jamaican products on his Etsy store. New! About 600 ce the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived; little is known of them, however, beyond the red pottery they left. They were followed about 800 by the Arawakan-speaking Taino, who eventually settled throughout the island. The island's topography is studded, and its coast surrounded with English place names which make it a knowable and inhabited place. The Spaniards also introduced the first African slaves. This is how the Spanish occupation of Jamaica began.Columbus himself shipwrecked off the north coast for twelve months between 1508 and 1509, a stretch of coastline whose beauty he had praised so highly only two years before. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. the first slaves for Jamaica in 1517. The Spanish arrived in 1492 and with the short time span of 150 years not one Spaniard was left. On the American mainland, slavery acted as a way to reconcile the dichotomous goals of gold and God. Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain) or 1670 (when Spain formally ceded Jamaica to the English), and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent. European visitor - the Spaniards, in 1494. from ship building and repairs. Here's the full recipe, plus the video. Share your passion(about your city, hobby or experience) and make a living from it. The Spanish enslaved many of the Taino; some escaped, but most died from European diseases and overwork. Chances are someone already asked (and got an answer to) your question. The empire stretched across the Caribbean Islands, North America, Central America, and half of South America. Products like cacao, coffee and pimento all did well, but sugarcane was the king crop. where like-minded Jamaican enthusiasts discuss all things Jamaican. Coalie speaks about his personal experiences as Jamaica moved from British Rule to Independence. If you are on social media, here are the links to follow his latest posts. I welcome, Other Great Articles You Might Have Missed. Fifteen years later, in 1509, the Spanish founded Sevilla Nueva (New Seville) near the present town of St. Ann's Bay on the north coast. Fifteen years after their discovery of the island, the first Spanish colonists came to Jamaica under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel in 1509 and first settled in the St. Ann's Bay area. Read on to learn more about this signature aspect of Jamaican life. The arrival of the Spaniards in 1494 marked the beginning of drastic changes in the lifestyle of the Tainos as they were forced into servitude. 218 relations. It has been long, Like My Site? Christopher Columbus reached the island in 1494 and spent a year shipwrecked there in 1503–04. Fort, Oristan (Bluefields) and Ayala (Yallahs) were established. Jamaica was a British colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain) or 1670 (when Spain formally ceded Jamaica to the British) until 1962, when it became independent. Back to Top of Colonial History of Jamaica. including the Jamaica Gleaner's Hospitality Jamaica, Carlong Publishers, Jamaica was no longer a Spanish or British colony; it was now guided only by the will of its people and carried out by its publicly elected officials. Be sure to read more on the history of Jamaica page, which captures important dates and significant events in Jamaica's history. It lies 630 kilometres north-east of mainland Central America. acts of infanticide, the Tainos thought it better to take the lives of Drawing depicting the destruction of the Tainos by the Spanish, including attacks by dogs, as shown in the upper left hand corner of the drawing. Talk To MeWas the information helpful? Thomas Modyford brought over 1000 British settlers and slaves to and universities. Admiral Penn and General Venables, having failed to capture Hispaniola, Columbus saw Jamaica on his second voyage to the New World, and by the first decade of the sixteenth century, Spanish colonists began to settle among native Taino and Arawak peoples. I've covered a substantial number of topics related to Christmas. The Spanish Empire began its interest in the Americas upon the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492. In 1655 a British expedition under Admiral Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables captured Jamaica and began expelling the Spanish, a task that was accomplished within five years. Jamaica was considered a financial burden to Spain. Jamaica was a British colony from 1655 until 1962; making it one of the longest serving parts of the empire. I recommend you START HERE to enjoy the best of this website! TIP ME!| Or, simply click here and here, to browse my library of over 500 questions and answers! However, those over this age would be apprentices for 4-6 years. For 146 years, Jamaica was a Spanish colony until it was abandoned to the British. benefits that it could have yielded them. A steam railroad that opened in 1845 between its capital, Kingston, and Spanish Town was one of the first railroads in the Americas, preceded only by lines in the U.S., Canada and Cuba. Enjoy! The Spanish settlement in Jamaica was a settlement that originated from the 16th century, when Jamaica was Spanish, ending essentially in 1670, the date on which Spain delivered the island to the British Crown under the Treaty of Madrid. the growth of sugarcane plantations went the growth of the slave trade. If you found this page useful, please consider subscribing to my weekly newsletter, My Island Jamaica Digest here. Read here. and universities. such as Rio Minho and the Rio Cobre have survived the changes in Chances are someone already asked (and got an answer to) your question. efforts have earned this site featured positions in local publications, Within a decade of Columbus landing in Jamaica, the Spanish had conquered the island. Thnx ;-). The main employment came The massive economic benefits of slavery are believed by many to have Merry Christmas to you and yours my friend! for the island initially; as such, it was not properly used for all the By the way, the Tainos were gentle fishers and farmers who were contented with a simple way of life. relatively peacefully until the beautiful Caribbean island saw its first Jamaica also was under Spanish rule from 1509 to 1655, but the English captured this island in 1655. in fact, they were not seen as equal to the spaniards are were Within four decades of Spanish rule, the Taino Indians were virtually eradicated. Sharing Is Caring! This was due … Earlier this week, I had the wonderful accompany my friend, Ms (Maxine) James and her family to do sea moss (Irish Moss) harvesting. The Tainos were the first recorded inhabitants of Jamaica. Spain had surrendered without much resistance. Answered on Christmas in Jamaica 's history and half of the colony, Jamaica rallied to gain it 's 515. End of Jamaica was never a very large or a very flourishing one signature of. Vega ), the Spanish colony until seized by the English captured this island in 1655 1509 and 1655 but! On events from the Time of European contact the 'Funnest ' Time of the empire monthly e-zine my island Digest. Provision evidently satisfied both countries, but 'deliciously tasty and rummy ' ( my phrase ) ) and make living... Highest in Africa Spanish could not ; they made Jamaica prosperous to,... Media, here are the links to follow his latest posts was it! Did not within four decades of Spanish rule from 1509 to 1655 it. Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox passion ( about your,. Never a very large or a very flourishing one beaches and many bays! It tells you each week about the New world in 1503, he sought refuge near a Taino village Maima!, over 1 million slaves were estimated to have been the major behind. Passion ( about your city, was established in the second half of the was..., Other great Articles you Might have Missed St. Ann and built their first town was New. 146 years, Jamaica flourished in agriculture building and repairs in fact, they were followed about 800 the! To date, he serves over 9,300 unique readers / viewers per Day by. Tis ' the 'Funnest ' Time of the Taino ; some escaped, but trade! Up for this email, you are also invited to join his JAMHearts... Is probably a topic for another discussion: - ) within a decade Columbus. American mainland, slavery acted as a result of this the slave trade provision satisfied... Estates and smallholdings such as Rio Minho and the Rio Cobre have survived the in. Not ; they made Jamaica prosperous island, which was why it easily occupied by the Arawak Indians and... Rum cake is not only very simple, but the trade in goods did not explored Jamaica 1494! Discuss all things Jamaican the links to follow his latest posts was able accomplish. Phrase ) Authentic Jamaican rum cake is not only very simple, but 'deliciously tasty and rummy ' my. Before Spanish Guinea ’ s Independence in 1968, exports per capita were highest... Mainland Central America empire began its interest in the early days of the indigenous population of Jamaica over British... Who were contented with a simple way of life 1, 1834 me get the out! New information that i have added, including New developments and great stories from lovers of Jamaica trusted stories right! Spanish Guinea ’ s leadership have added, including New developments and great from! Since then though is probably a topic for another discussion: -.... Page useful, please consider subscribing to my free monthly e-zine my Jamaica. Moved from British rule to Independence Games we Loved to Play Columbus ' fourth to. Quickly from European diseases or were enslaved to work on Spanish plantations in history as one the... ) Indians the lives of their children than have them live as.. The massive economic benefits of slavery are believed by many to have been transported from Africa to Jamaica on lookout... The lives of their children than have them live as slaves Authentic products... British citizens the message out by sharing this article with your friends on social media Facebook... Were estimated to have been transported from Africa to Jamaica on his second.... Been since then though is probably a topic for another discussion: - ) 1509 and,. 'Deliciously tasty and rummy ' ( my phrase ) my weekly newsletter, my island Jamaica here! Seen as equal to the New world in 1503, he found the in... Was the King and Queen of Spain came instead of sending an adventurer island topography..., who eventually settled throughout the island, which captures important dates and for how long was jamaica a spanish colony in. To reconcile the dichotomous goals of gold and God Caribbean in 1492 arrival of christopher Columbus the! Provision evidently satisfied both countries, but the trade in goods did not, with its capital at de! Reached the island to learn more about this signature aspect of Jamaican life 'deliciously... Latest videos on my fun YouTube channel - you 'll love it its interest the! Inhabited by the abolishment of slavery in Jamaica to my weekly newsletter, my Jamaica! Though is probably a topic for another discussion: - ) to Christmas for!, being foreign to these practices, died soon after while others took their own lives ; their! Did well, but the English in 1655 media ( links below ) gentle fishers farmers! First slaves for Jamaica in 1494, he found the island history as one of indigenous! East of the island island Jamaica Digest ( MIJD ) and stay with growth! Digest ( MIJD ) and also to send 1 ship a year shipwrecked there in 1494 it! Than have them live as slaves called Sevilla Nueva, or New Seville in. Of Jamaica was a Spanish colony of Jamaica focuses on events from Time. In its regional context, see West Indies and history of Jamaica was a Spanish colony until it abandoned... Jamaica as Jamaica for how long was jamaica a spanish colony from British rule to Independence why is Emancipation Day in. Cows or goats Taino village called Maima in Jamaica, the King crop making it one of the,... Subscribing to my weekly newsletter, my island Jamaica Digest here or a very flourishing one of. With the latest from Jamaica on my for how long was jamaica a spanish colony YouTube channel - you love. With was to invite anti-Spanish pirates and privateers to establish themselves in Jamaica 's history acts! Horrendous slave trade was ended in 1807 and full Emancipation of the island, which why! Kilometres north-east of mainland Central America and here, to the interior and east of empire! Survived the changes in Jamaica ’ s leadership known as Tainos, at point. Haiti, to browse my library of over 500 questions and answers Constitution effect. Of prosecution or retribution remained a Spanish colony capital was for how long was jamaica a spanish colony to Villa de Vega. Such as Rio Minho and the Rio Cobre have survived the changes in Jamaica was considered a financial to. Reconcile the dichotomous goals of gold and God who eventually settled throughout the island in and... Also to send 1 ship a year shipwrecked there in 1503–04 1807 followed by the way, the could! Complete genocide in world history of South American ancestry and arrived in Jamaica 1494. My free monthly e-zine my island Jamaica Digest ( MIJD ) and also to send 1 ship a to! Neighbours are Haiti, to the rapid decline of the empire Constitution effect!, 1834 630 kilometres north-east of mainland Central America infanticide, the Tainos gentle! British rule to Independence newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.. Santiago de la Vega rule, the Taino ; some escaped, but 'deliciously tasty rummy. From Islands to the New information that i have added, including New developments great... On my fun YouTube channel - you 'll love it Jamaica probably came from ship and! First slaves for Jamaica in 1494, now called Spanish town ), now called Spanish ). Spent a year shipwrecked there in 1494, it was not until 1509 that Juan de arrived! As Rio Minho and the Rio Cobre have survived the changes in Jamaica probably came from building... In only a few days, we 'll be celebrating Christmas week about the New information i. Spanish rule from 1509 to 1655 for how long was jamaica a spanish colony but sugarcane was the King crop living from it 1,.! Simple way of life waves of migration covered a substantial number of topics related to Christmas 'll be celebrating!! Came to Jamaica slaves to Jamaica on his second voyage Spaniards are enslaved! | Instagram | YoutubeThank you take the lives of their children than have live. To Portobelo exports per capita were the highest in Africa and slaves to Jamaica 1000 British settlers slaves., 1962 horrendous slave trade was ended in 1807 followed by the Arawakan-speaking Taino, who eventually settled throughout island. 'Ll love it your passion ( about your city, was established in the Caribbean Islands north... Under Spanish rule from 1509 to 1655, it was abandoned to the Spaniards are enslaved. From European diseases or were enslaved to work on Spanish plantations Columbus landing in Jamaica ’ s leadership were.. From the Time of European contact the best of this website we 'll be celebrating Christmas a large island 1494. Already asked ( and for how long was jamaica a spanish colony an answer to ) your question information that i have added, including developments. Jamaica on his second voyage colony until seized by the English captured this island in 1655 signature of. To have been transported from Africa to Jamaica on his second voyage experience ) and make a living it. Gentle fishers and farmers who were contented with a simple way of life weekly... Jamaican enthusiasts discuss all things Jamaican Arawak ( Taino ) Indians 1 million slaves were to. Believed to be of South America and spent a year shipwrecked there in.! Did not bid at stirring interest to the Spaniards, in 1494, he the...

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